Lemon Eucalyptus Extract P-Menthane-3,8-Diol （PMD）Natural Drive Midge CAS 42822-86-6
Lemon eucalyptus, large tree, native to Australia. Now China’s Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Fujian, Sichuan and other distribution.
Eucalyptus citriodora oil is a plant essential oil extracted from the leaves of large lemon trees, which has antibacterial and insecticidal effects. China is one of the world’s major exporters of eucalyptus oil. The active ingredient of lemon tart essential oil is p-Menthane-3, 8-diol
Eucalyptus citriodora Extract extracts natural lemon eucalyptus oil from the leaves and twigs of lemon eucalyptus, and then refines the lemon eucalyptus oil to obtain lemon eucalyptus oil, which is then rectified and separated to obtain citronellol and citronellal. Purification of citronellal to give p-Menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). PMD has remarkable mosquito repellent activity. It is the only insect repellent recommended by the US EPA/CDC for natural plant extract. It is safe for human skin and has good mosquito repellent effect. It is a green mosquito repellent.
English name: p-Menthane-3, 8-diol
English alias: p-Menthane-3, 8-diol;
INCI Name: MENTHANEDIOL
Molecular formula: C10H20O2
Molecular weight: 172.26
CAS No.: 42822-86-6
EINECS number: 255-953-7
Specifications: p-Menthane-3, 8-diol 80%, 95%
Aroma characteristics: Mint, Fresh grass lemon eucalyptus flavor.
Color: opaque crystal
Appearance: A colorless to yellowish liquid or solid
Packing: 20kg open plastic bucket, 25, 50kg galvanized iron bucket.
Storage: Store in a closed container. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated place to avoid contamination by gas and keep away from fire.
Shelf life: The shelf life is 3 years under the conditions of storage, packaging and unopening.
The principle of PMD does not rely on the strong smell to drive away the mosquitoes, but a kind of neuro-interferon against mosquitoes. The popular point is that the mosquitoes will smell dizzy and dare not approach, and human consumption will have no effect. It is a physical drive Mosquito way.
The use of PMD has a long history, but only recently became important as a commercial repellent in the U.S. Oil of lemon eucalyptus has been used for many years in China as a product known as Quwenling (translated as “effective repellent of mosquitoes”). Researchers in the U.S. began investigating this product in the early 1990s and identified PMD as the active ingredient. In 2000, EPA registered oil of lemon eucalyptus/ PMD as a ‘biopesticide repellent’ –meaning that it is derived from natural materials. Its products can be applied to human skin and clothing for the purpose of repelling insects, such as mosquitoes, biting flies and gnats, and is formulated as a spray and a lotion.
PMD was first registered with the EPA in 2000 with the issuance of its Biopesticide Registration Eligibility Document for the registrant-S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. As part of its assessment, EPA stated in its document that since PMD is intended for direct application to the skin, including that of infants and children, FQPA considerations apply. It states, “The requirements for a biochemical pesticide registration include only one developmental study (in one species), and there are usually no data available which demonstrate whether young animals are differentially affected upon exposure to that pesticide. Therefore, the ten-fold FQPA safety factor could be retained for biochemical pesticides.” As such, product labels specify that it is not to be used on children younger than three years of age.According to EPA, PMD as an active ingredient is considered GRAS (generally recognized as safe), is used to flavor foods and medicines, and is found in many consumer products. As a result, EPA concluded that an assessment of aggregate exposure was not necessary. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), after an evaluation of information contained in peer-reviewed scientific literature and data available, recommends the use of PMD products to help people avoid the bites of disease carrying mosquitoes.
When compared to the “pure” oil of lemon eucalyptus, PMD showed far superior repellent activity under laboratory conditions. PMD has also shown remarkable ability to repel mosquitoes when compared to DEET –the most popular synthetic commercial insect repellent which has been linked to serious adverse effects, especially in children.
When used in the field on humans in Tanzania, PMD gave complete protection from biting for between 6 and 7.75 hours. In comparison to DEET, there was no significant difference regarding efficacy and duration of protection when used against the Anopheles mosquito, Africa’s chief malaria vector. In fact, PMD has been found to be equally efficacious compared to lower concentrations of DEET. In tests against a 10% DEET repellent, PMD products, such as the Repel Brand (with 26% oil of lemon eucalyptus or 65% PMD), were shown to prevent bites for 4 to 7 hours after application for aggressive species of mosquito and for greater than 12 hours for less aggressive mosquitoes –a period of prevention greater than the studied DEET repellent. Studies have found that concentrations of PMD at 20-50%, at various formulations, can provide between 2-12hr protection against different mosquito species.
Other studies have shown that PMD also gives protection against the biting midge, Culicoides variipennis Coquillett, the deer tick, Ixodes ricinis L.
Cosmetics and pharmaceuticals
Further reading: Cosmetics Plant Essential Oil
The company sales of plant extracts products, all belong to the intermediate raw materials, only applicable to the pharmaceutical factory, food factory, health care products factory, beverage factory, cosmetics factory production enterprises and related to the agent, Distributor, Wholesaler’s sales.The potential benefits and applications involved in the product introduction are derived from published literature and are not evaluated by the food and drug administration (fda) for reference only.